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CFR 21 - §110, Subpart C - Equipment, §110 .40 Equipment and Utensils (a) essentially states that all equipment and utensils used in food processing must be designed and installed using corrosion-resistant materials that can be cleaned and maintained in a sanitary condition such that the condition of the food contact surface will not cause the food to become adulterated.
The demands of the semiconductor industry as well as the bioprocess industry for clean, smooth product contact surfaces have led to advances in process piping technology and equipment fabrication technology, including the use of orbital welding.
This weld would have been unacceptable by any sanitary piping standard.
Above right: orbital weld on 316L stainless steel tubing. Weld profile is essentially flat with no concavity or convexity.
As an example of the global economy, the largest dairy plant in Asia was installed in 1994 with orbital welding equipment from the United States and stainless steel processing equipment was imported from Europe to make processed cheese slices for Mac Donalds' hamburgers in India.
A dairy in Arizona, USA, was recently installed with state-of-the-art equipment and orbital welding to the highest industry standards.